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Second Soviet Occupation (1944–1990)

01.08.1944 the second Soviet occupation started in Kaunas. 
07.08.1944 ‘‘Metalas’’ factory started working (was established in 1879, in Šančiai) and in 1949 was reconstructed.  
1944–1950 Symbols of Lithuanian statehood (Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, the Statue of Liberty and other sculptures) were destroyed in the garden of Military History museum (in Lithuanian Kariškai istorinis muziejus).  
01.01.1945 a State publishing house of educational literature was established (K. Donelaičio St. 2A, since 1947 – K. Donelaičio St. 6) which since 12.02.1964 was known as ‘‘Šviesa’’.  
28.02.1945 a prosthesis-orthopaedic factory was established (K. Donelaičio St. 75B). 
02.09.1945 the Lithuanian National Institute of Physical Education was founded.  
01.11.1945 the first issue of the newspaper Kaunas Truth (Lithuanian: “Kauno tiesa”) was published. 
1945 Kaunas machine-tool factory was founded. At first, it was called “garage”, later – Kaunas Engine Repair Factory. 
1945 a textile-haberdashery company ‘‘Pakaita’’ (Jovarų St. 5) was founded. 
1945 Technikum of Celluloses-Paper Industry was founded. 
01.02.1946 the Oncology Dispensary was established (then Lenin Ave. 59, in the building of Latvian Representative Office). 
1946 Kaunas 7th Hospital was established.  
1946 Kaunas Cooperative Technikum ‘‘Lietkoopsąjunga’’ was established. 
1946 Pažaislis, Lampėdžiai and Veršvai were incorporated into the city, on 01.01.1948 – Petrašiūnai settlement.  
1947 Žalgiris basketball team (formed 1944) won first gold medals in the Soviet Union Championship, held in Tbilisi.  
1947 the Lithuanian Academy of Agriculture (functioning since 23.09.1924) was relocated from Dotnuva to Kaunas.  
16.11.1948 V. Kapsukas-Mickevičius Printing House was established after the printing house ‘‘Šviesa’’ and the National Fabric of Paper Products & Lithography were merged together. 
14.07.1949 Algirdas Šocikas and Nikolaj Koroliov fought for the gold medal in the USSR Boxing Championship, held in the Kaunas Sports Hall. 
01.10.1950 Kaunas Regional Library was established and since 1953 it is known was Kaunas Regional Public Library.  
31.10.1950 Kaunas Polytechnic Institute (KPI) was founded. 
31.12.1950 Kaunas University Faculty of Medicine was reorganized to Kaunas Medical Institute. 
1950 the factory of metal productions called ‘‘Nemunas’’ was established (instead of a nationalized company ‘‘Neris’’).  
1950–1953 residential district was built in the Karalius Mindaugas Quay (until 1988 known as Pergalės Quay; architect Jokūbas Peras).  
20.03.1951 Petras Cvirka Memorial Museum was opened (founded in 1948).  
1951 Kaunas Secondary School of Applied Arts was established in the former premises of the Art School.  
1952 Kaunas 3rd Hospital was established in Aukštieji Šančiai.  
1952 a subdivision of the ‘‘Kauno audiniai’’ was established in Vilijampolė which was reorganized to silk & plush complex in 1956. 
1953 Kaunas Radio Works (also known as ‘‘Kauno radijo fabrikas’’) was established. 
1953 Kaunas Technikum of Food Industry was founded. 
1953 the Odontology Clinic was opened (reconstructed in 1982 by architect I. Likšienė’s project). 
1954 Kaunas Technikum of Statistics was founded. 
1955–1959 Kaunas Hydroelectric Power Plant, the largest power plant in Lithuania, which is using renewable resources, was built.  
29.10.1956 Kaunas Taxi Park was founded, 
01.11.1956 a commemoration of the All Soul‘s Day was initiated and organized by students. 
20.03.1957 Kaunas Dairy Centre was established.  
1957 concerts of the renovated carillon (installed in 1937) started in the garden of Kaunas State Historical Museum. 
1958 Museum of the Ninth Fort (Žemaičių Rd. 73), a holocaust remembrance symbol, was established 
11.09.1960 the Kaunas State Puppet Theatre started working (KSPT).  
1960 the Dainava and the Petrašiūnai underwent a massive expansion of the residential and the industrial districts. 
1961 Kaunas Travel and Excursion Agency was founded.  
1961 an orchestra of the wind instruments was formed and in 1973 the orchestra was given the name of ‘‘Ąžuolynas’’.  
August 1962 “Žalgiris’’ Sports Palace (architects A. Zeidotas, V. Dičius; K. Baršausko St. 66) and “Žalgiris’’ Stadium were finished. 
24.10.1962 Kaunas cast-iron foundry ‘‘Centrolitas’’ (R. Kalantos St. 49) was founded in Petrašiūnai. 
04.11.1962 after the torch run by natural gas was lit, the installation of the gas pipeline was started in the rest of Kaunas.  
02.08.1963 Kaunas Thermal Network Company was founded. 
09.05.1964 a tank “Josif Stalin” was installed in the garden of the State History Museum in Kaunas to commemorate Kaunas “liberation”,  
1964 the Experimental White Ware Ceramics Factory ‘‘Jiesia’’ was officially founded. 
1964 the Kleboniškis Bridge (the right one) across the Neris was opened. 
1964 the faculty of general education was established in Vilnius University and in 1966 – the faculty of the evening studies, which in 1984 was relocated to one of the oldest neighbourhoods of the Old Town.  
31.12.1965 the first trolley started to run the route Panemunė–Old Town. 
1965 the first international ballroom dancing contest "Amber Couple" (Lithuanian: “Gintarinė pora”) was organized. The contest is organized until our days.  
1965 the Factory of the Artificial Fibre was founded. 
1965 the first annual traditional festival Poetry Spring was organized. 
1965 the interior of the Kaunas Garrison Church was reconstructed and the Gallery of Stained Glass and Sculpture was established (was closed in 1991) (architects A. Mikėnas and R. Dičius). 
1965–1967 the hotel ‘‘Baltija’’ was under construction. (Lenino Ave. 71, present Vytauto Ave.) 
1966 the only Devil’s Museum in the world was founded. 
1966 the first wide-screen movie theatre ‘‘Planeta’’ was opened. In 1970 the movie theatre ‘‘Dainava’’ was opened and in 1977 – the movie theatre ‘‘Kaunas’’. 
1966 Romainiai Cemetery (1st) was opened. 
1966 the hippie and the hiker movements were active (the both believed in a different realization of the value system).  
1967 pantomime troupe lead by Modris Tenisons was relocated from Vilnius.  
1967–1982 – the first class restaurants and cafés were open:  
23.10.1969 Kaunas County National Choir was established which was professional enough to join the Lithuanian National Philharmonic. 
1969 Kipras Petrauskas Memorial Museum was founded in Žaliakalnis (K. Petrausko St. 31). 
1969 the Endocrine Preparations Factory (present Veiverių St. 134) was established. 
1969 the store ‘‘Buitis’’ was opened, in 1982 – the store ‘‘Viešnagė’’, in 1986 – the store ‘‘Rėda’’. 
17.04.1970 monument to Vladimir Lenin’s 100th birthday anniversary (sculptor N. Petrulis, architect K. Šešelgis) was unveiled in the Julius Janonis Square (present Vienybės Sq.). 
14.05.1972 Romas Kalanta immolated himself in the inner yard of the Musical Theatre in protest against the Soviet Occupation.  
27.12.1973 the monument for the commemoration of the Lithuanian revolutionary movement figures K. Požela, R. Čarna, K. Giedrys ir J. Greifenbergeris was unveiled at the Ramybės Park. 
1973 Kaunas Artists’ House was founded (S. Nėries St. 56, present V. Putvinskio St.). 
1974 Juozas Gruodis Memorial Museum was founded in the composer Gruodis’ house (Salako St. 18) 
1974–1985 the residential district Kalniečiai was being built.  
26.09.1975 the Museum of Lithuanian Pharmacy was opened but its origins date back to 1937.  
1975 The Šiaučiūnaitė’s textile manufacturing association was formed (Raudondvario rd.). 
1975 a modern complex for the household service was opened.  
1975 Kaunas Fossil Fuel-Power Station was opened. 
1976 pedestrian bridge called “Three Maidens Bridge” across the river Nemunas was built.  
1976 Kaunas Chamber Theatre was established. 
1976–1981 the yacht club ‘‘Žalgiris’’ was being built by the Kaunas Reservoir at Pažaislis. (architect D. Petkelienė).  
18–25.04.1977 the theatre festival ‘‘Vaidiname darbininkams’’ (‘‘Performing for the employees’’) was opened in the ‘’Spalio 50-mečio dirbtinio pluošto’’ (October’s 50th anniversary artificial fibre factory) Culture and Sports Palace. 
27.04.1977 a monument to Jonas Mačiulis—Maironis was unveiled at the City Hall (sculptor G. Jokūbonis, architect K. Šešelgis).  
1978 The Kaunas Picture Gallery was built and an exposition was opened (architect L. Gedgaudienė and J. Navakas). 
1978–1981 the Palace of Ritual Services was being built (I. Meskupo St. 220, present Jonavos St.). 
1978–1985 the Eiguliai residential district was being built. (Architect S. Lukošius and G. Miškinienė). 
27.01.1979 a monument to the Komsomol members who perished for Soviet government in Lithuania was unveiled in the Sąjungos Square (sculptor S. Šarapovas, architects G. Baravykas and V. Vielius). 
1979 the Memorial Museum was founded in Stasys Šimkus‘ house in Birutė (Aleksotas, Bitininkų St. 45). 
1980 Vilijampolė quay was built (present Raudondvario Rd. 107) 
1980 Vytautas Andziulis with the help of his colleague Juozas Bacevičius established a secret printing press called “ab” (the name originates from the first letters of their surnames). 
1980 Birutė Letukaitė founded studio of professional dance which had evolved into a professional dance theatre ‘‘Aura’’.  
1982 after the reconstruction which started in 1977 by architects A. Paulauskas and V. Paleckienė, Laisvės Avenue became a pedestrian zone. 
1983 Varniai bridge across the river Neris was built.  
1983 the Museum of Sport Aviation is opened in the Young Technician Station (A. Mickevičiaus St. 2).  
01.03.1983 the department of SSR Museum of Lithuanian Folk Instruments was established.  
1983–1989 the basketball teams Kaunas ‘‘Žalgiris’’ and PBC CSKA Moscow were competing in the Soviet Union National League championship finals.  
1984 the Karmėlava Cemetery was opened. 
1984–1990 the Šilainiai residential district was being built. 
1986 the Ąžuolynas Park was given the status of a Nature Monument of national Importance.  
01.11.1987 an unauthorized rally in commemoration of Maironis 125th birthday anniversary was held at Maironis’ Tomb. 
1987 the biggest hotel in Kaunas ‘‘Neris’’ was built (was put into service in 1988). 
10.06.1988 The Initiative group of the Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdis (eng. The Reform Movement of Lithuania) for Kaunas zone was elected in the Architects’ house (Vilniaus St. 22).  
01.07.1988 airport of civil aviation was opened in Karmėlava. 
1988 Simonas Daukantas pedestrian bridge to the Nemunas Island was built (architect A. Sprindys). 
1988 the renovation of the inner yard and the monuments of the National Museum of History (present Vytautas the Great War Museum) was started. The renovation project was created by the architect A. Sprindys. 
30.06.1989 the Mykolas Žilinskas Art Gallery was opened (architects E. Miliūnas, K. Kisielius and S. Juškys; Nepriklausomybės Square 12). 
03.08.1989 the campaign for the return of the Soviet military enlisting documents to Moscow was started.